Arnold, Dave. Liquid Intelligence: The Art and Science of the Perfect Cocktail. New York: W. W. Norton, 2014.

Barth, Roger. The Chemistry of Beer: The Science in the Suds. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2013.

Embury, David. The Fine Art of Mixing Drinks. New York: Mud Puddle Books, 2009.

Goode, Jamie. The Science of Wine. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2005.

Halliday, James, and Hugh Johnson. The Art and Science of Wine. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, 2007.

Liu, Kevin. Craft Cocktails at Home. Published by the author, 2013.

McGee, Harold. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. New York: Scribner, 2004.

Rogers, Adam. Proof: The Science of Booze. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014.

Spoelman, Colin, and David Haskell. The Kings County Distillery Guide to Urban Moonshining: How to Make and Drink Whiskey. New York: Abrams, 2013.

Watson, Ronald Ross, Victor R. Preedy, and Sherma Zibadi. Alcohol, Nutrition, and Health Consequences. New York: Humana Press, 2013.

Wondrich, David. Imbibe! From Absinthe Cocktail to Whiskey Smash, a Salute in Stories and Drinks to “Professor” Jerry Thomas, Pioneer of the American Bar. New York: Penguin Group, 2015.


Chapter 1: Fermentation

Avedovech, Richard M., Mina R. Mcdaniel, Barney T. Watson, and William E. Sandine. “An Evaluation of Combinations of Wine Yeast and Leuconostoc oenos Strains in Malolactic Fermentation of Chardonnay Wine.” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 43 (Jan. 1992) 253–60.

Barrangou, R., S.-S. Yoon, F. Breidt Jr., H. P. Fleming,. and T. R. Klaenhammer. “Identification and Characterization of Leuconostoc fallax Strains Isolated from an Industrial Sauerkraut Fermentation.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68, no. 6 (Jun. 2002): 2877–84.

Burdock, George A. Fenaroli’s Handbook of Flavor Ingredients, 6th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2010.

Bushman, Zachary. “Ester Production in Fermentation.” Gastrograph blog, Sep. 21, 2015.

Corzo, G., S. Revah, and P. Christen. “Effect of Oxygen on the Ethyl Acetate Production from Continuous Ethanol Stream by Candida utilis in Submerged Cultures.” In Food Flavors: Generation, Analysis and Process Influence, G. Charalambous (ed.), pp. 1141–42. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B. V., 1995.

Dawes, E. A., D. W. Ribbons, and P. J. Large. “The Route of Ethanol Formation in Zymomonas mobilis.” Biochemical Journal 98 (1966): 795–803.

Eglinton, Jeffrey M., Scott J. McWilliam, Michael W. Fogarty, I. Leigh Francis, Mariola J. Kwiatkowski, Peter B. Høj, and Paul A. Henschke. “The Effect of Saccharomyces bayanus–Mediated Fermentation on the Chemical Composition and Aroma Profile of Chardonnay Wine.” Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 6 (200): 190–96.

“Esters.” Beer Sensory Science Wordpress blog, Feb. 4, 2011.

Gunasekaran, P., and K. Chandra Raj. “Ethanol Fermentation Technology – Zymomonas mobilis.” Current Science 77, no. 1 (Jul. 1999): 56–68.

Hui, Y. H., and E. Özgül Evranuz. Handbook of Plant-Based Fermented Food and Beverage Technology, 2nd ed., pp. 25–32. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2012.

Humbard, Matt. “Physiology of Flavors in Beer – Lactobacillus Species.” A PhD in Beer, Apr. 13, 2015.

———. “Physiology of Flavors in Beer – Saccharomyces Species.” A PhD in Beer, Jan. 9, 2015.

Hyma, Katie E., Sofie M. Saerens, Kevin J. Verstrepen, and Justin C. Fay. “Divergence in Wine Characteristics Produced by Wild and Domesticated Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Federation of European Microbiological Societies Yeast Research 11, no. 7 (Nov. 2011): 540–51.

Jabr, Ferris. “The Science of the Great Molasses Flood.” Scientific American, Aug. 1, 2013.

Jackson, Ronald S. Wine Science: Principles and Applications, 4th ed., pp. 365–86. Waltham, MA: Academic Press, 2014.

Lappe-Oliveras, Patricia, Rubén Moreno-Terrazas, Javier Arrizón-Gaviño, Teófilo Herrera-Suárez, Abisaí García-Mendoza, and Anne Gschaedler-Mathis. “Yeasts Associated with the Production of Mexican Alcoholic Nondistilled and Distilled Agave Beverages.” FEMS Yeast Research 8, no. 7 (Nov. 2008): 1037–52.

McGee, Harold, and Daniel Patterson. “Talk Dirt to Me.” T: The New York Times Style Magazine, May 6, 2007.

Milesi, M. M., I. V. Wolf, C. V. Bergamini, and E. R. Hynes. “Two Strains of Nonstarter Lactobacilli Increased the Production of Flavor Compounds in Soft Cheeses.” Journal of Dairy Science 93, no. 11 (Nov. 2010): 5020–31. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2009-3043.

“Monitoring Brettanomyces by 4-EP and 4-EG.” ETS Labs blog, Jan. 5, 2015 (updated Apr. 5, 2016).

Nielsen, Jan Clair, and Marianne Richelieu. “Control of Flavor Development in Wine during and after Malolactic Fermentation by Oenococcus oeni.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65, no. 2 (Feb. 1999): 740–45.

Obire, O. “Activity of Zymomonas Species in Palm-Sap Obtained from Three Areas in Edo State, Nigeria.” Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 9, no. 1 (2005): 25–30.

Priestley, Joseph. “Impregnating Water with Fixed Air.” London: J. Johnson, 1772.

Querol, Amparo, and Graham H. Fleet. Yeasts in Food and Beverages, p. 348. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer Science and Business Media, 2006.

Reis, Mike. “How to Identify Yeast Flavors in Beer: Wild Yeast and Bacteria.” Serious Eats, Mar. 14, 2013.

———. “How to Identify Yeast Flavors in Beer: Esters, Phenols, and Alcohols.” Serious Eats, Jan. 23, 2013.

Salvadó, Z., F. N. Arroyo-López, J. M. Guillamón, G. Salazar, A. Querol, and E. Barrio. “Temperature Adaptation Markedly Determines Evolution within the Genus Saccharomyces.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77, no. 7 (Apr. 2011): 2292–2302.

Tamang, Jyoti Prakash, and Kasipathy Kailasapathy. Fermented Foods and Beverages of the World, pp. 110–11. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2010.

Wendakoon, Chitra, Peter Calderon, and Daniel Gagnon. “Evaluation of Selected Medicinal Plants Extracted in Different Ethanol Concentrations for Antibacterial Activity against Human Pathogens.” Journal of Medicinally Active Plants 1, no. 2 (2012): 60–68.


Chapter 2: Distillation

Alcarde, André Ricardo, Paula Araújo de Souza, and André Eduardo de Souza Belluco. “Chemical Profile of Sugarcane Spirits Produced by Double Distillation Methodologies in Rectifying Still.” Food Science and Technology 31, no. 2 (Apr.–Jun. 2011).DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612011000200012.

Clary, John J. The Toxicology of Methanol, ch. 3. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

De León-Rodríguez, Antonio, Pilar Escalante-Minakata, María I. Jiménez-García, Leandro G. Ordoñez-Acevedo, José L. Flores Flores, and Ana P. Barba de la Rosa. “Characterization of Volatile Compounds from Ethnic Agave Alcoholic Beverages by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.” Food Technology and Biotechnology 46, no. 4 (Oct. 2008): 448–55.

Rogers, Adam. Proof. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014.

Strengell, Teemu. “History of the Column Still.” Whiskey Science Blogspot, Aug. 1, 2013.

Wallage, H. Rachelle, and James H. Watterson. “Formic Acid and Methanol Concentrations in Death Investigation.” Journal of Analytical Toxicology 32 (Apr. 2008): pp. 241–47.

Wiśniewska, Paulina, Magdalena Śliwińska, Tomasz Dymerski, Waldemar Wardencki, and Jacek Namieśnik. “The Analysis of Vodka: A Review Paper.” Food Analytical Methods 8, no. 8 (Sep. 2015): 2000–2010. DOI: 10.1007/s12161-015-0089-7.


Chapter 3: Aging

“The Angels Share and More . . .” Oak Barrels Ltd. website.

Burnside, Erin E. “Characterization of Volatiles in Commercial and Self-Prepared Rum Ethers and Comparison with Key Aroma Compounds of Rum.” Master’s thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2012.

“Chemistry in Winemaking.” Chemical Processes in New Zealand, 2nd ed. Christchurch, NZ: New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, 1998.

Del Caro, A., P. Piombino, A. Genovese, L. Moio, C. Fanara, and A. Piga. “Effect of Bottle Storage on Colour, Phenolics and Volatile Composition of Malvasia and Moscato White Wines.” South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture 35, no. 1 (2014).

De Pracomtal, Guillaume, Marie Mirabel, Rémi Teissier du Cros, and Anne-Charlotte Monteau. “Types of Oak Grain, Wine Élevage in Barrel.” Practical Winery and Vineyard, Jul. 2014.

Eridon, Sean. “Oak Lactones.” University of California Davis Waterhouse Lab website, 2015.

Jackson, Ronald S. Wine Tasting: A Professional Handbook, pp. 34–42. Burlington, MA: Academic Press, 2009.

Jeffrey, John D. “Aging of Whiskey Spirits in Barrels of Non-Traditional Volume.” Master’s thesis, Michigan State University, 2012.

Lahne, Jacob. “Aroma Characterization of American Rye Whiskey by Chemical and Sensory Analysis.” Master’s thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2010.

Lee, Jessica Audrey. “Why Wine Smells the Way It Does.” Stanford Wine Society blog, Jan. 31, 2014.

Lee, Monica K.-Y., Alistair Paterson, John R. Piggott, and Graeme D. Richardson. “Origin of Flavor in Whiskies and a Revised Flavor Wheel: A Review.” Journal of the Institute of Brewing 107, no. 5 (2001).

McGee, Harold. On Food and Cooking. New York: Scribner, 2004.

McLaren, Ian. “Genie in a Bottle: How Spirits Age.” Tales of the Cocktail, Jul. 15–19, 2015, New Orleans, LA. Unpublished presentation.

Owens, Bill. Craft of Whiskey Distilling. Hayward, CA: White Mule Press, 2009.

Prida, Andrei, and Pascal Chatonnet. “Impact of Oak-Derived Compounds on the Olfactory Perception of Barrel-Aged Wines.” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 61, no. 3 (2010): 408–13.

“Profiling Oak Aroma Compounds.” ETS Labs blog, Mar. 6, 2015 (updated Mar. 4, 2016).

Rogers, Adam. Proof. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014.

Scott, James A., Wendy A. Untereiner, Juliet O. Ewaze, Bess Wong, and David Doyle. “Baudoinia: A New Genus to Accommodate Torula compniacensis.” Mycologia 99, no. 4 (Jul.–Aug. 2007): pp. 592–601.

Simpson, R. F. “Aroma Composition of Bottle Aged White Wine.” Vitis: Journal of Grapevine Research 18 (1979): 148–54.

Slavin, J. L., P. M. Brauer, and J. A. Marlett. “Neutral Detergent Fiber, Hemicellulose and Cellulose Digestibility in Human Subjects.” The Journal of Nutrition 111, no. 2 (Feb. 1981): 287–97.

“The Surprising Truth about Oaking Wine.” Wine Folly blog, Jan. 9, 2013.

U.S. Forestry Service. “Oak Aging and Wine.”

U.S. Government Publishing Office. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. US Code Title 27: Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms. Part 5—Labeling and Advertising of Distilled Spirits. Subpart C—Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, §5.22: The standards of identity.

Varnam, A., and J. M. Sutherland. Beverages: Technology, Chemistry, and Microbiology, pp. 438–41. London: Springer Science and Business Media, 1994.

“Volatile Sulfides: Detection and Prevention.” ETS Labs blog, Jul. 21, 2015 (updated Jul. 23, 2015).


Chapter 4: Preparation

Arnold, Dave. Liquid Intelligence, pp. 74, 80, 87–88, and 165. New York: W. W. Norton, 2014.

———. “Tales of the Cocktail: Science of Shaking II.” Cooking Issues, Jul. 24, 2009.

Barth, Roger. The Chemistry of Beer, p. 237. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2013.

Benson, Etienne. “Chemistry Professor Explains the ‘Fizzics’ of Beer.” Stanford Report, Nov. 7, 2001.

“Bowmore and Water.” Bowmore website.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Salmonella: Technical Information.”

Conner, John M., and Alistair Patterson. “Release of Distillate Flavour Compounds in Scotch Malt Whisky.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79, no. 7 (May 1999): 1015–20.

Cornell University. “Beer Foam Secrets Tapped in New Study.” ScienceDaily, May 14, 2014.

Cui, Y., Q. Li, Z. Liu, L. Geng, X. Zhao, X. Chen, and K. Bi. “Simultaneous Determination of 20 Components in Red Wine by LC-MS: Application to Variations of Red Wine Components in Decanting.” Journal of Separation Science, 35, no. 21 (Nov. 2012): 2884–91. DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201200305.

Department of Health and Human Services. “Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs during Production, Storage, and Transportation; Final Rule.” 21 CFR, pts 16 and 118. Federal Register, vol. 74, no. 130 (Jul. 9, 2009): 33030–34.

Jack, Frances. “Development of Guidelines for the Preparation and Handling of Sensory Samples in the Scotch Whisky Industry.” Journal of the Institute of Brewing 109, no. 2 (2003): 114–19.

Liu, Kevin. “Cocktail Science: 8 Tips and Tricks for Getting the Most out of Citrus.” Serious Eats, Jul. 1, 2013.

———. “Cocktail Science: 5 Myths about Ice, Debunked.” Serious Eats, Jun. 18, 2013.

———. Craft Cocktails at Home, p. 73. Published by the author, 2013.

McGee, Harold. On Food and Cooking, pp. 401–6. New York: Scribner, 2004.

———. “To Enhance Flavor, Just Add Water.” New York Times, Jul. 27, 2010.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. “2013 Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview.” Traffic Safety Facts, Dec. 2014.

Peeters, D., and P. Huyskens. “Endothermicity or Exothermicity of Water/Alcohol Mixtures.” Journal of Molecular Structure 300 (1993) 539–50.

Rhodes, Jesse. “Meringue Chemistry: The Secrets of Fluff.” Smithsonian, Jan. 20, 2012.

Ródriguez-Ródriguez, Javier, Almudena Casado-Chacón, and Daniel Fuster. “Physics of Beer Tapping.” Physical Review Letters 113, no. 21 (Nov. 20, 2014). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.214501.

Shafer, Neil N., and Richard N. Zare. “Through a Beer Glass Darkly.” Physics Today 44, no. 10 (1991): 48. DOI: 10.1063/1.881294.

Shwartz, Mark. “Riddle of Beer Bubbles Solved in Time for St. Patrick’s Day.” Stanford Report, Mar. 17, 2004.

Siebert, Karl J. “Recent Discoveries in Beer Foam.” Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists 72, no. 2 (2014): pp. 79–87.

USDA. “Shell Eggs from Farm to Table.”

Wyrick, Julianne. “Creating the Perfect Beer Foam.” Food Matters blog, Scientific American, May 30, 2014.


Chapter 5: Sip

“Aging Changes in the Senses.” Medline Plus. National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Ashton, Robert H. “Wine as an Experience Good: Price Versus Enjoyment in Blind Tastings of Expensive and Inexpensive Wines.” Journal of Wine Economics 9, no. 2 (Aug. 2014): 171–82. DOI: 10.1017/jwe.2014.7.

Bajec, Martha R., and Gary J. Pickering. “Astringency: Mechanisms and Perception.” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 48, no. 9 (Nov. 2008): 858–75. DOI: 10.1080/10408390701724223.

Bartoshuk, L. M., K. Rennert, J. Rodin, and J. C. Stevens. “Effects of Temperature on the Perceived Sweetness of Sucrose.” Physiology and Behavior 28, no. 5 (May 1982): 905–10.

Chen, Jianshe, and Lina Engelen. Food Oral Processing: Fundamentals of Eating and Sensory Perception, p. 284. Chichester, U.K.: Blackwell Publishing, 2012.

“Crème de Violette.” Hunger and Thirst for Life Blogspot, Apr. 30, 2015.

Cruz, Alberto, and Barry G. Green. “Thermal Stimulation of Taste.” Nature 403, no. 6772 (Feb. 2000): 88992.

Galeotti, N., Mannelli L. Di Cesare, G. Mazzanti, A. Bartolini, and C. Ghelardini. “Menthol: A Natural Analgesic Compound.” Neuroscience Letters 322, no. 3 (Apr. 2002): 145–48.

Gawel, Richard, A. Oberholster, and Leigh Francis. “A ‘Mouth-feel Wheel’: Terminology for Communicating the Mouth-Feel Characteristics of Red Wine.” Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 6, no. 3 (Oct. 2000): 203–7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-0238.2000.tb00180.x.

Gibbins, H. L., and G. H. Carpenter, “Alternative Mechanisms of Astringency – What Is the Role of Saliva?” Journal of Texture Studies 44, no. 5 (Oct. 2013): 364–75. DOI: 10.1111/jtxs.12022.

Goldstein, Robin, Johan Almenberg, Anna Dreber, John W. Emerson, Alexis Herschkowitsch, and Jacob Katz. “Do More Expensive Wines Taste Better? Evidence from a Large Sample of Blind Tastings.” American Association of Wine Economists Working Paper No. 16: Apr. 18, 2008.

Green, B. G., and B. L. McAuliffe. “Menthol Desensitization of Capsaicin Irritation. Evidence of a Short-Term Anti-Nociceptive Effect.” Physiology and Behavior 68, no. 5 (Mar. 2000): 631–39.

Green, Barry. “Why Is It that Eating Spicy, “Hot” Food Causes the Same Physical Reactions as Does Physical Heat (Burning and Sweating, for Instance)?” Scientific American, Oct. 21, 1999.

Herz, R. S., J. Eliassen, S. Beland, and T. Souza. “Neuroimaging Evidence for the Emotional Potency of Odor-Evoked Memory.” Neuropsychologia 42, no. 3 (2004): 371–78.

“How to Taste Bourbon: Mouthfeel.” Quarto Explores blog, Sep. 1, 2015.

Kappes, S. M., S. J. Schmidt, and S.-Y. Lee. “Mouthfeel Detection Threshold and Instrumental Viscosity of Sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup Solutions.” Journal of Food Science 71, no. 9 (Nov.–Dec. 2016): S597–S602. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00174.x.

Langstaff, Susan A., and M. J. Lewis. “The Mouthfeel of Beer: A Review.” Journal of the Institute of Brewing 99 (Jan.–Feb. 1993): 31–37. DOI: 10.1002/j.2050-0416.1993.tb01143.x.

Lasbury, Mark. “It’s Not Just Chili Peppers that Are Hot.” Biological Exceptions Blogspot, Apr. 2, 2014.

Mojet, Jos, Johannes Heidema, and Elly Christ-Hazelhofuthors. “Taste Perception with Age: Generic or Specific Losses in Supra-threshold Intensities of Five Taste Qualities?” Chemical Senses 28, no. 5 (2003): 397–413.

Morrot, Gil, Frédéric Brochet, and Denis Dubourdieu. “The Color of Odors.” Brain and Language 79, no. 2 (Nov. 2001): 309–20. DOI: 10.1006/brln.2001.2493.

Peart, Karen. “Study Shows Tongue’s Temperature Affects Taste.” Yale Bulletin and Calendar 28, no. 23 (Mar. 2000).

Pepino, M. Yanina, and Julie A. Mennella. “Sucrose-Induced Analgesia Is Related to Sweet Preferences in Children but Not Adults.” Pain 119, nos. 1–3 (Dec. 2005): 210–18.

Plassmann, Hilke, John O’Doherty, Baba Shiv, and Antonio Rangel. “Marketing Actions Can Modulate Neural Representations of Experienced Pleasantness.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, no. 3 (Jan. 2008): 1050–54. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0706929105.

Poucher, W. A. Poucher’s Perfumes, Cosmetics and Soaps. Volume 3: Cosmetics, p. 365. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Science and Business Media, 1993.

Rawson, Nancy E. “Olfactory Loss in Aging.” Science of Aging Knowledge Environment 2006, no. 5 (Feb. 2006). DOI: 10.1126/sageke.2006.5.pe6.

Szallasi, Arpad, and Peter M. Blumberg. “Vanilloid (Capsaicin) Receptors and Mechanisms.” Pharmacological Reviews 51, no. 2 (Jun. 1999): 159–212.

Szallasi, Arpad, Daniel N. Cortright, Charles A. Blum, and Samer R. Eid. “The Vanilloid Receptor TRPV1: 10 Years from Channel Cloning to Antagonist Proof-of-Concept.” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 6 (May 2007): 357–72. DOI: 10.1038/nrd2280.

Talavera, Karel, Keiko Yasumatsu, Thomas Voets, Guy Droogmans, Noriatsu Shigemura, Yuzo Ninomiya, Robert F. Margolskee, and Bernd Nilius. “Heat Activation of TRPM5 Underlies Thermal Sensitivity of Sweet Taste.” Nature 438, no. 7070 (Dec. 2005): 1022–25.

Vidal, Stéphane, Leigh Francis, Sylvain Guyot, Nathalie Marnet, Mariola Kwiatkowski, Richard Gawel, Véronique Cheynier, and Elizabeth J. Waters. “The Mouth-Feel Properties of Grape and Apple Proanthocyanidins in a Wine-Like Medium.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 83, no. 6 (May 2003): 564–73.

Viestad, Andreas. “With Hot Peppers, the Pleasure Is in the Pain.” Washington Post, Feb. 2, 2015.

Wise, Paul M., Madeline Wolf, Stephen R. Thom, and Bruce Bryant. “The Influence of Bubbles on the Perception Carbonation Bite.” PLOS ONE 8, no. 8 (2013). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071488.

Zellner, D. A., W. F. Stewart, P. Rozin, and J. M. Brown. “Effect of Temperature and Expectations on Liking for Beverages.” Physiology and Behavior 44, no. 1 (1988): 61–68.


Chapter 6: Metabolism of Alcohol

Attwood, Angela S., Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel, George Stothart, and Marcus R. Munafò. “Glass Shape Influences Consumption Rate for Alcoholic Beverages.” PLOS ONE 7, 8 (Aug. 17, 2012): e43007. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043007.

Bailey, D. G., J. D. Spence, B. Edgar, C. D. Bayliff, and J. M. Arnold. “Ethanol Enhances the Hemodynamic Effects of Felodipine.” Clinical and Investigative Medicine 12, no. 6 (Dec. 1989): 357–62.

Bailey, David G., J. Malcolm, O. Arnold, and J. David Spence. “Grapefruit Juice–Drug Interactions.” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 46, 2 (Aug. 1998): 101–10. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2125.1998.00764.x.

Baraona, E., C. S. Abittan, K. Dohmen, M. Moretti, G. Pozzato, Z. W. Chayes, C. Schaefer, and C. S. Lieber. “Gender Differences in Pharmacokinetics of Alcohol.” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 25, 4 (Apr. 2001): 502–7.

Bateman, D. N. “Effects of Meal Temperature and Volume on the Emptying of Liquid from the Human Stomach.” Journal of Physiology 331 (Oct. 1982): 461–67. PMCID: PMC1197760.

Begleiter, Henri, and Benjamin Kissin (eds.). The Pharmacology of Alcohol and Alcohol Dependence. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Chumlea, W. C., S. S. Guo, C. M. Zeller, N. V. Reo, and R. M. Siervogel. “Total Body Water Data for White Adults 18 to 64 Years of Age: The Fels Longitudinal Study.” Kidney International 56, 1 (Jul. 1999): 244–52. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.00532.x.

Franki, Richard. “The Speed of Drinking.” Family Practice News, Aug. 15, 2008.

Frezza, Mario, Carlo di Padova, Gabriele Pozzato, Maddalena Terpin, Enrique Baraona, and Charles S. Lieber. “High Blood Alcohol Levels in Women: The Role of Decreased Gastric Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activity and First-Pass Metabolism.” New England Journal of Medicine 322, no. 2 (Jan. 11, 1990): 95–99. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199001113220205.

George, W. H., and G. A. Marlatt. “The Effects of Alcohol and Anger on Interest in Violence, Erotica, and Deviance.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95 (1986): 150–58.

Guéguen, N., C. Jacob, H. Le Guellec, T. Morineau, and M. Lourel. “Sound Level of Environmental Music and Drinking Behavior: A Field Experiment with Beer Drinkers.” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 32 (2008): 1795–98. DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00764.x.

Hunt, J. N., and M. T. Knox. “A Relation between the Chain Length of Fatty Acids and the Slowing of Gastric Emptying.” Journal of Physiology 194 (1968): 327–36.

Jones, A. W., and K. Å. Jönsson. “Food-induced Lowering of Blood-Ethanol Profiles and Increased Rate of Elimination Immediately after a Meal.” Journal of Forensic Science 39, 4 (Jul. 1994): 1084–93.

Jones, A. W., K. Å. Jönsson, and S. Kechagias. “Effect of High-Fat, High-Protein, and High-Carbohydrate Meals on the Pharmacokinetics of a Small Dose of Ethanol.” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 44 (1997): 521–26. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2125.1997.t01-1-00620.x.

Lang, A. R., D. T. Goeckner, V. J. Adesso, and G. A. Marlatt. “Effects of Alcohol on Aggression in Male Social Drinkers.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology 84 (1975): 508–18.

Levitt, Michael D., Ricardo Li, Eugene G. Demaster, Michael Elson, Julie Furne, and David G. Levitt. “Use of Measurements of Ethanol Absorption from Stomach and Intestine to Assess Human Ethanol Metabolism.” American Journal of Physiology: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 273, 4 (Oct. 1997), G951–57.

Luttrell, William E., Warren W. Jederberg, and Kenneth R. Still. Toxicology Principles for the Industrial Hygienist, p. 28. Fairfax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2008.

Mascord D., J. Smith, G. A. Starmer, and J. B. Whitfield. “The Effect of Fructose on Alcohol Metabolism and on the [Lactate]/[Pyruvate] Ratio in Man.” Alcohol and Alcoholism 26, 1 (1991): 53–59.

Meyer, B. H., F. O. Müller, and H. K. L. Hundt. “The Effect of Fructose on Blood Alcohol Levels in Man.” South African Medical Journal 62 (Nov. 6, 1982): 719–21.

Mitchell, Mack C., Jr., Erin L. Teigen, and Vijay A. Ramchandani. “Absorption and Peak Blood Alcohol Concentration after Drinking Beer, Wine, or Spirits.” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 38, no. 5 (May 2014): 1200–1204.

Mumenthaler, M. S., J. L. Taylor, R. O’Hara, and J. A. Yesavage. “Gender Differences in Moderate Drinking Effects.” Alcohol Research and Health 23, 1 (1999): 55–64.

National Institute on Alcohol and Alcoholism. “Alcohol Metabolism.” Alcohol Alert 35 (Jan. 1997).

Parlesaka, Alexandr, Michael Hans-Ulrich Billinger, Christian Schäfer, Heinz Dieter-Wehner, Christiane Bode, and Johann Christian Bode. “First-Pass Metabolism of Ethanol in Human Beings: Effect of Intravenous Infusion of Fructose.” Alcohol 34 (2004): 121–25.

Payne-James, Jason, Cliona McGovern, Richard Jones, Steven Karch, and John Manlove. Simpson’s Forensic Medicine, 13th ed., Irish vers., p. 217. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2014.

Petersen, K. K., M. L. Rousing, C. Jensen, L. Arendt-Nielsen, and P. Gazerani. “Effect of Local Controlled Heat on Transdermal Delivery of Nicotine.” International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology 3, 3 (2011): 236–42.

Roberts, C., and S. P. Robinson. “Alcohol Concentration and Carbonation of Drinks: The Effect on Blood Alcohol Levels.” Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 14, no. 7 (Oct. 2007): 398–405.

Roine, R. P., R. T. Gentry, R. T. Lim, E. Baraona, and C. S. Lieber. “Effect of Concentration of Ingested Ethanol on Blood Alcohol Levels.” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 15 (1991): 734–38. DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.1991.tb00589.x.

Seitz, H. K., G. Egerer, U. A. Simanowski, R. Waldherr, R. Eckey, D. P. Agarwal, H. W. Goedde, and J. P. von Wartburg. “Human Gastric Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activity: Effect of Age, Sex, and Alcoholism.” Gut 34, 10 (Oct. 1993): 1433–37. PMCID: PMC1374557.

Whitehouse, David, Dr. “‘Fake Alcohol’ Can Make You Tipsy.” BBC News Online, Jul. 1, 2003.

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Chapter 7: Effects

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